Objective: To evaluate the optimal timing of neonates with prenatally diagnosed congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). Methods: Data from a retrospective cohort study conducted by the Japanese CDH Study Group between 2011 and 2018 were divided into two groups according to delivery timing: 36–37 and 38–41 weeks of gestation (wg). Death before 90 days as the primary outcome and the duration of hospitalization, oxygen therapy and tube feeding at discharge as the secondary outcomes were analyzed with generalized linear model applying inverse probability of treatment weighting method. We also performed layered analysis according to stomach position. Result: Among 493 neonates with prenatally diagnosed, isolated and left CDH, 237 were born at 38–41wg. The duration of hospitalization was significantly shorter in those born at 38–41wg, especially among those with stomach malposition, and the other outcomes showed no difference. Conclusions: Delivery at 38–41wg could be beneficial for those with high grade stomach position.
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