Excessive production of wear particles from total joint replacements induces chronic inflammation, macrophage infiltration, and consequent bone loss (periprosthetic osteolysis). This inflammation and bone remodeling are critically regulated by the transcription factor NF-κB. We previously demonstrated that inhibition of NF-κB signaling by using the decoy oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) mitigates polyethylene wear particle-induced bone loss using in vitro and in vivo models. However, the mechanisms of NF-κB decoy ODN action, and in particular its impact on systemic macrophage recruitment, remain unknown. In the current study, this systemic macrophage infiltration was examined in our established murine femoral continuous particle infusion model. RAW264.7 murine macrophages expressing a luciferase reporter gene were injected into the systemic circulation. Quantification of bioluminescence showed that NF-κB decoy ODN reduced the homing of these reporter macrophages into the distal femurs exposed to continuous particle delivery. Particle-induced reduction in bone mineral density at the distal diaphysis of the femur was also mitigated by infusion of decoy ODN. Histological staining showed that the decoy ODN infusion decreased osteoclast and macrophage numbers, but had no significant effects on osteoblasts. Local infusion of NF-κB decoy ODN reduced systemic macrophage infiltration and mitigated particle-induced bone loss, thus providing a potential strategy to treat periprosthetic osteolysis.
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