Epidemiological evidence on the relationships between PARK16 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and Parkinson's disease (PD) is inconsistent. We examined this issue in Japan. Included were 229 cases within six years of PD onset. Controls were 356 patients without neurodegenerative disease. Compared with subjects with the AA genotype of SNP rs823128, those with the AG genotype, but not the GG genotype, had a significantly reduced risk of sporadic PD. Compared with the AA genotype of SNP rs947211, both the AG genotype and the GG genotype were significantly related to an increased risk of sporadic PD. Using subjects with the AA genotype of SNP rs823156 as a reference group, there were significant inverse relationships under the additive and dominant models. No significant relationships were found between SNPs rs16856139 or rs11240572 and sporadic PD. The CAAAC, the TGAGA, and the CAGAC haplotypes were significantly related to sporadic PD. The additive interaction between SNP rs823128 and smoking affecting sporadic PD was significant, although the multiplicative interaction was not significant. The PARK16 SNPs rs823128, rs947211, and rs823156 and the CAAAC, TGAGA, and CAGAC haplotypes may be significantly associated with sporadic PD in Japan. New evidence of an additive interaction between SNP rs823156 and smoking is suggested.
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