It has been established that oxidative stress plays a crucial role in the development and progression of vascular diseases. Besides the mitochondria, the NADPH oxidase/Nox family proteins are now thought to be important origins of the reactive oxygen species that underlie various vascular disease states, such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, angiogenesis, and ischemia/reperfusion injury. This review summarizes the basis of vascular Nox proteins and discusses their pathophysiological roles in the vascular system.
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