C-to-U RNA editing has been widely observed in organellar RNAs in terrestrial plants. Recent research has revealed the significance of a large, plant-specific family of pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins for RNA editing and other RNA processing events in plant mitochondria and chloroplasts. PPR protein is a sequence-specific RNA-binding protein that identifies specific C residues for editing. Discovery of the RNA recognition code for PPR motifs, including verification and prediction of the individual RNA editing site and its corresponding PPR protein, expanded our understanding of the molecular function of PPR proteins in plant organellar RNA editing. Using this knowledge and the co-expression database, we have identified two new PPR proteins that mediate chloroplast RNA editing. Further, computational target assignment using the PPR RNA recognition codes suggests a distinct, unknown mode-of-action, by which PPR proteins serve a function beyond site recognition in RNA editing.
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