Aim: To determine the factors affecting neonatal prognosis in preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM). Method: We conducted a case-control study involving 92 women between the years 2000 and 2010 diagnosed with PPROM between 25 and 31 weeks' gestation, who received antenatal steroids, and delivered between 26 and 31 weeks' gestation; a retrospective cohort study was conducted based on the results. We used data from four tertiary centers and compared the frequencies of neonatal neurologic deficits and neonatal deaths. Results: There was a difference between the two groups; specifically, the ND group (n = 18) consisted of patients whose infants had neurologic deficits and/or neonatal deaths and the neurologically normal (NN) group (n = 74) included NN neonates amongst the patients who had expectant management (94% vs. 73%, respectively). Multivariable analysis revealed that expectant management was independently associated with an increased risk for neonatal neurologic deficits and neonatal deaths (odds ratio, 16.14). All neonates with poor prognosis in the expectantmanagement group delivered within 14 days after PPROM. Conclusions: Expectant management within 14 days after PPROM is associated with poor neonatal outcomes. Decisions regarding an expectant strategy should be made carefully. An immediate, planned delivery after steroid administration should be considered to improve neonatal prognosis in patients who have PPROM after 26 weeks' gestation.
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