Abstract: We performed a phase 1 study to evaluate the safety and feasibility of bortezomib (BOR) with melphalan and dexamethasone (BMD) in patients with light chain amyloidosis (AL) without severe cardiac failure. Patients received BOR on a twice-weekly schedule (days 1, 4, 8, and 11 of 28-day treatment cycles) at planned doses of 1.0 (dose level 1) and 1.3 (dose level 2) mg/m2 in combination with melphalan 8 mg/m2 on days 1–4 and dexamethasone 20 mg on days 1, 2, 4, 5, 8, 9, 11, and 12. Dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) was evaluated at the end of cycle one, and treatment was continued for four cycles. Six patients were enrolled at dose level 1, and one showed DLT (grade 3: herpes zoster). Further 3 patients were enrolled at dose level 2, and none experienced DLT. Thus, the maximum tolerated dose was defined as BOR doses of 1.3 mg/m2 for the twice-weekly schedule. A total of 32 cycles of BMD therapy were given, and the most common hematologic toxicity was thrombocytopenia (47 %). Peripheral neuropathy was the most common non-hematologic toxicity (16 %). We demonstrated that BMD is safe and tolerable for Japanese AL patients without severe cardiac damage. Clinical trial registration: UMIN000006604.
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