Lessons Learned: A biweekly TAS-102 plus BEV schedule in patients with heavily pretreated mCRC showed equivalent efficacy with less toxicity compared with the current schedule of TAS-102 plus BEV combination. Biweekly TAS-102 plus BEV combination could reduce unnecessary dose reduction of TAS-102, maintain higher doses, and possibly be effective even in cases without chemotherapy-induced neutropenia (CIN). The prespecified subgroup analysis of this study showed an obvious association between CIN within the first two cycles and prognosis of biweekly TAS-102 plus BEV. Background: TAS-102 (trifluridine/tipiracil) plus bevacizumab (BEV) combination therapy has shown promising activity in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). However, the previously reported dose and schedule for the TAS-102 (70 mg/m2/day on days 1–5 and 8–12, every 4 weeks) plus BEV (5 mg/kg on day 1, every 2 weeks) regimen is complicated by severe hematological toxicities and difficult administration schedules. Here, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of a more convenient biweekly TAS-102 plus BEV combination. Methods: Patients with mCRC who were refractory or intolerant to standard chemotherapies were enrolled. Patients received biweekly TAS-102 (twice daily on days 1–5, every 2 weeks) with BEV (5mg/kg on day 1, every 2 weeks). The primary endpoint was progression-free survival rate at 16 weeks (16-w PFS rate). Results: From October 2017 to January 2018, 46 patients were enrolled. The recommended phase II dose was determined to be TAS-102 (70 mg/m2/day). Of the 44 eligible patients, the 16-w PFS rate was 40.9% (95% confidence interval, 26.3%–56.8%), and the null hypothesis was rejected (p <.0001). Median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival were 4.29 months and 10.86 months, respectively. Disease control rate was 59.1%. Common grade 3 or higher adverse events were hypertension (40.9%), neutropenia (15.9%), and leucopenia (15.9%). Conclusion: Biweekly TAS-102 plus BEV showed promising antitumor activity with safety.
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