Objectives We performed an open-label, multicenter, single-arm phase II study (UMIN ID 000010532) to prospectively evaluate the efficacy and safety of nab-paclitaxel for previously treated patients with advanced non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods Patients with advanced NSCLC who experienced failure of prior platinum-doublet chemotherapy received weekly nab-paclitaxel (100 mg/m2) on days 1, 8, and 15 of a 21-day cycle until disease progression or the development of unacceptable toxicity. The primary end point of the study was objective response rate (ORR). Results Forty-one patients were enrolled between September 2013 and April 2015. The ORR was 31.7% (90% confidence interval, 19.3%–44.1%), which met the primary objective of the study. Median progression-free survival was 4.9 months (95% confidence interval, 2.4–7.4 months) and median overall survival was 13.0 (95% confidence interval, 8.0–18.0 months) months. The median number of treatment cycles was four (range, 1–17) over the entire study period, and the median dose intensity was 89.1 mg/m2 per week. Hematologic toxicities of grade 3 or 4 included neutropenia (19.5%) and leukopenia (17.1%), with no cases of febrile neutropenia being observed. Individual nonhematologic toxicities of grade 3 or higher occurred with a frequency of <5%. Conclusion Weekly nab-paclitaxel was associated with acceptable toxicity and a favorable ORR in previously treated patients with advanced NSCLC. Our results justify the undertaking of a phase III trial comparing nab-paclitaxel with docetaxel in this patient population.
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