Background: Palonosetron has demonstrated non-inferiority to ondansetron for prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in pediatric patients in the United States and Europe. We conducted a single-arm registration study to evaluate the efficacy, safety and pharmacokinetics of palonosetron in pediatric patients in Japan. Methods: Key inclusion criteria were age of 28 days to 18 years and malignant disease for which initial highly emetogenic chemotherapy or moderately emetogenic chemotherapy was planned. Patients received palonosetron at 20 μg/kg over at least 30 s intravenously before the start of highly emetogenic chemotherapy or moderately emetogenic chemotherapy and received dexamethasone on Days 1-3. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients achieving a complete response in the overall phase (0-120 h) in Course 1, and its threshold was set at 30%. Results: From December 2016 to June 2019, 60 patients were enrolled, and 58 received at least one dose of palonosetron. The proportion of patients achieving a complete response during the overall phase was 58.6% (95% confidence interval, 44.9%-71.4%), showing the primary endpoint was met (P < 0.0001). Treatment-related adverse events occurred in two patients (3.4%). Regarding the pharmacokinetics of palonosetron, neither the plasma concentration immediately after administration nor the area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time 0 to infinity differed significantly among the age groups. Conclusion: We demonstrated the efficacy of palonosetron in pediatric patients receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy or moderately emetogenic chemotherapy and confirmed the appropriateness of the 20 μg/kg dose, regardless of age, considering the safety and pharmacokinetic profiles. Trial registration: JapicCTI-163305, registered 6 June 2016.
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