Four housekeeping genes including gapA, groEL, gyrA and pgi were used in order to reveal a phylogenetic relationship among Paenibacillus species. Phylogenetic analysis and end-to-end pairwise analysis were carried out using nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the housekeeping genes. A monophylogenetic clade including P. popilliae, P. thiaminolyticus and P. dendritiformis formed in all phylogenetic trees. The results in both analyses indicated that the relationship between P. larvae subsp. larvae and P. popilliae was comparatively far. The result of the end-to-end pairwise analysis also showed that, among the Paenibacillus species used in this study, the closest species to P. popilliae was P. dendritiformis.
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