Association mapping is becoming an important tool for identifying alleles and loci responsible for dissecting highly complex traits in barley. This study describes the population structure and marker–trait association using general linear model (GLM) analysis on a site of 60 barley genotypes, evaluated in six salinity environments. Ninety-eight SSR and SNP alleles were employed for the construction of a framework genetic map. The genetic structure analysis of the collection turned out to consist of two major sub-populations, mainly comprising hulled and naked types. LD significantly varied among the barley chromosomes, suggesting that this factor may affect the resolution of association mapping for QTL located on different chromosomes. Numerous significant marker traits were associated in different regions of the barley genome controlling salt tolerance and related traits; among them, 46 QTLs were detected on 14 associated traits over the two years, with a major QTL controlling salt tolerance on 1H, 2H, 4H and 7H, which are important factors in improving barley's salt tolerance.
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