In recent years, microglial cells are becoming to stand in the limelight. They may play a major role not only under physiological condition but also under many pathophysiological conditions. Manipulating their function may lead to cure or attenuation of neurological diseases, traumatic injury, psychiatric disorders, or even sleepiness or aging. In this chapter, the properties of microglial cells including receptors for neurotransmitters and neurohormones/neuromodulators, transporters, and other signals which are related to therapeutic possibilities are summarized.
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