Background: Although capsule endoscopy (CE) is useful to evaluate obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB), CE does not always identify the responsible lesions in patients with overt OGIB. Objectives: To identify factors predictive of rebleeding after negative CE in patients with overt OGIB. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of 221 patients who underwent CE for overt OGIB. Among 120 patients with negative CE findings, clinical course of 112 patients after CE was followed-up. Clinical factors associated with rebleeding after negative CE and lesions responsible for rebleeding were investigated. Results: Rebleeding was identified in 37 patients (33.0%) during follow-up after negative CE, and 36 patients (32.1%) developed rebleeding within 24 months after negative CE. Multivariate analyses showed that ongoing overt OGIB (OR 2.67; 95% CI 1.07-5.80; p = 0.036) and severe anemia at the initial CE examination (OR 2.54; 95% CI 1.33-4.96; p = 0.005) were independent factors-associated with rebleeding. Rebleeding source was detected in 13 patients. Conclusions: Rebleeding is not a rare condition among patients with overt OGIB after negative CE. Patients with ongoing overt OGIB or severe anemia at the initial CE examination seem to have a higher risk of rebleeding.
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