The induction of antigen-specific immunotolerance has been gathering attention concerning the therapy of allergy and autoimmune diseases. Tolerogenic dendritic cells (tDCs) play crucial roles in immunotolerance therapy because they induce anergic responses for auto-reactive helper T cells, and also enhance differentiation to regulatory T cells to maintain tolerance against auto-antigens. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is one of the representative molecules used to induce tDCs. We have proposed a simple formulation of ovalbumin nanoparticles complexed with ATRA (OVA/RA NPs). OVA/ RA NPs were taken up by DCs and successfully induced phenotypes of tDCs.
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