To study mediators associated with the progression of disease and the process of bone regeneration in human apical periodontitis, we examined samples of periapical granulation tissues and regeneration tissues obtained from five patients by use of immunohistochemical methods. Periapical granulation tissues were found to contain a large number of CD4-positive T cells and CD68-positive monocytes/macrophages (CD4: 35.2%, CD68: 32.7%). The CD4-positive T cells and CD68-positive monocytes/macrophages were predominantly present in regeneration tissues (CD4: 62.1%, CD68: 16.0%). In these the percentages of CD4-positive T cells were higher as compared with periapical granulation tissues (from 35.2% to 62.1%). In periapical granulation tissues, CD4-positive T cells stained positively for interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and negatively for interleukin-4 (IL-4). In regeneration tissues, IL-4-producing cells could be detected. However, IFN-γ-producing cells could not be detected. These results suggest that IFN-γ and IL-4 may modulate the pathogenesis of infectious disease and the process of bone regeneration in local inflammation sites such as human apical periodontitis.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes