Background/Aim: The novel taxane cabazitaxel has been shown to exert excellent anticancer effects after androgen receptor axis-targeting (ARAT) agents in clinical data, but not in in vitro data. We investigated the clinical outcome of cabazitaxel chemotherapy after docetaxel according to use of ARAT agents. Patients and Methods: Prostate specific antigen (PSA) response, progression-free survival, and overall survival were compared between cases with and without prior use of ARAT agents in 74 Japanese patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer treated with cabazitaxel chemotherapy. Results: Background characteristics were comparable between patients with and without prior use of ARAT agents. PSA response, progression-free survival, and overall survival in cabazitaxel chemotherapy were comparable between patients with and without prior use of ARAT agents. Conclusion: No detrimental effects of prior ARAT agents on clinical outcome were observed for cabazitaxel chemotherapy in the postdocetaxel setting, suggesting that cabazitaxel can be expected to remain active even after ARAT agent therapy.
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