Background: Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) is a precancerous lesion that may progress to invasive cervical cancer without intervention. We aim to examine the prognostic outcomes and risk factors for recurrence after laser vaporization for CIN 3, CIN 2 with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, and CIN 1 persisting for more than 2 years. Methods: Between 2008 and 2016, a total of 1070 patients underwent cervical laser vaporization using a carbon dioxide laser. We performed a retrospective review of their medical records to assess their clinical characteristics, pathologic factors, and prognostic outcomes. Results: The mean patient age was 34 years (range 18–64 years). The preoperative diagnosis was CIN 1 in 27 patients, CIN 2 in 485 patients, and CIN 3 in 558 patients. Over a median follow-up period of 15 months, the 2-year recurrence rate was 18.9%, and the 5-year recurrence rate was 46.5%. The 2-year retreatment rate was 12.6%, and the 5-year retreatment rate was 30.5%. We diagnosed 9 patients with invasive cancer after treatment; all patients underwent combined multidisciplinary treatment, and there were no deaths during follow-up. The recurrence-free interval was correlated with patient age (hazard ratio [HR], 1.028; 95% CI 1.005–1.051; P = 0.0167), body mass index (HR, 1.052; 95% CI 1.008–1.098; P = 0.0191), and glandular involvement (HR, 1.962; 95% CI 1.353–2.846; P = 0.0004). Conclusions: Cervical laser vaporization is effective and useful for patients with CIN who wish to preserve fertility. However, patients with glandular involvement, older age, and higher body weight require close follow-up for recurrence.
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