The fraction of administered antibiotics that reach the cecum and colon causes dysbiosis of the gut microbiome, resulting in various diseases. Protection of the gut microbiome from antibiotics using antibiotic adsorbents in the cecum and colon is a promising method to overcome this issue. Previously, activated charcoal (AC) has been reported to protect the gut microbiome of host animals. AC is an adsorbent that is widely used to capture toxic compounds and overdosed drugs in the gastrointestinal tract. The specificity of adsorbents for antibiotics is critical to avoid the risk of unexpected side effects caused by nonspecific adsorption of biological compounds in the intestinal fluid, such as bile acids and essential micronutrients. Here, we have developed specific adsorbents for vancomycin (VCM), which is known to cause gut dysbiosis. The adsorbents were composed of polyethyleneglycolbased microparticles (MPs) in which a specific ligand for VCM, D-Ala-D-Ala-OH, was attached via dendrons of D-lysine to raise the content of the ligand in the MPs. The MPs successfully protected Staphylococcus lentus from VCM in vitro because of the adsorption of VCM in the culture media. Pre-administration of MPs to mice reduced the amount of free VCM in the feces to an undetectable level. This treatment minimized the effect of VCM on gut microbiota and provided protection against Clostridioides difficile infection after oral challenge with spores.
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