This study develops a framework to facilitate the participation of scientists to policy design towards energy transition, building upon existing literatures on science policy nexus, policy process, and energy system modelling. The framework assumes that policy design is embedded within systems and influenced by other actors, which is represented by incorporating a model of policy process derived from the Multiple Streams Framework that Kingdon (1984) originally developed. In order to support policy design for the transition of the energy system considering stakeholders’ primary interests and the possibility for a reshaping of the political dynamics, a cognitive mapping approach based on interviews to stakeholders is adopted. The newly developed framework is applied to a case study of a power system transition in Japan in order to confirm its effectiveness. The framework is identified to be able to support the creation of new policy alternatives by seeking options which satisfy the “policy process test”. Although the proposed framework remains a hypothetical tool which requires further validation and verification through additional practical applications toward policymaking, the policy process aspects captured by the framework are invaluable, especially given the current challenges in energy policy change and major determinants of policy direction.
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