Insulin and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) induced morphologically different membrane rufflings in KB cells. Insulin-induced membrane ruffling was inhibited by microinjection of rho GDI, an inhibitory GDP/GTP exchange regulator for both rho p21 and rac p21 small GTP-binding proteins, but not inhibited by microinjection of botulinum exoenzyme C3, known to selectively ADP-ribosylate rho p21 and to impair its function. This rho GDI action was prevented by comicroinjection with guanosine 5'-(3-O-thio)triphosphate (GTPγS)-bound rac1 p21. In contrast, HGF-induced membrane ruffling was inhibited by microinjection of rho GDI or C3. This rho GDI action was prevented by comicroinjection with GTPγS-bound rhoA p21, and this C3 action was prevented by comicroinjection with GTPγS-bound rhoA(Ile-41) p21, which is resistant to C3. Microinjection of either GTPγS-bound rac1 p21 or rhoA p21 alone induced membrane ruffling in the absence of the growth factors. The rac1 p21-induced membrane ruffling was morphologically similar to the insulin-induced kind, whereas rhoA p21-induced ruffling was apparently different from both the insulin- and HGF-induced kinds. Membrane ruffling was also induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), a protein kinase C-activating phorbol ester, but not by Ca2+ ionophore or microinjection of a dominant active Ki-ras p21 mutant (Ki-ras(Val-12) p21). The phorbol ester- induced membrane ruffling was morphologically similar to the rhoA p21- induced kind and inhibited by microinjection of rho GDI or C3. These results indicate that rac p21 and rho GDI are involved in insulin-induced membrane ruffling and that rho p21 and rho GDI are involved in HGF- and phorbol ester- induced membrane rufflings.
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