The hard X-ray emission from the TRIAM-1M tokamak plasma during steady state lower hybrid current drive with a discharge duration of a few minutes was measured with sodium iodide scintillation spectrometers. The radial profiles of the X-ray emission were also measured and indicate that, in the low density regime (ne = (1−3)×1012 cm−3), the current carrying high energy electrons are mainly in the inner region of the plasma column and their radial profile remains unchanged during current drive. On the other hand, high density discharges (ne = (3−6) × 1012 cm−3) are always accompanied by an abrupt drop of the plasma current, and the X-ray emission profile changes from peaked to broad. This change can be attributed to the conditions of wave accessibility. As the electron density increases, the accessibility of the plasma to lower hybrid waves with low values of the parallel wave number n1 is significantly reduced and high energy electrons resonating with the waves are produced at the plasma periphery. Interaction of these electrons with the limiters causes an increase of the electron density in this region; waves with low n1 then become completely excluded from the inner part of the plasma column. This interpretation is supported by measurements of the density profile and impurity radiation, and has been confirmed in an investigation of discharges with additional gas puffing.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes