Aims/Introduction: Resistin is an adipocyte-derived polypeptide that leads to the progression of insulin resistance and subsequent atherosclerosis. Some studies have reported an association between self-reported intake of n−3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and serum resistin levels. However, no studies have investigated the association between the ratio of serum levels of n−3 to serum n−6 PUFAs and the serum resistin concentration in the general population. Materials and Methods: We carried out a cross-sectional study of 3,200 community-dwelling Japanese individuals aged ≥40 years in 2002–2003. The ratios of serum eicosapentaenoic acid or docosahexaenoic acid to arachidonic acid (AA) were categorized into quartiles. The associations of serum eicosapentaenoic acid/AA and docosahexaenoic acid/AA with the serum resistin concentration were assessed using linear regression models with adjustment for potential confounding factors. Results: The geometric mean of serum resistin was 10.3 ng/mL. The age- and sex-adjusted geometric mean of serum resistin decreased significantly with increased levels of serum eicosapentaenoic acid/AA (quartile 1: 11.3 ng/mL; quartile 2: 10.6 ng/mL; quartile 3: 10.3 ng/mL; quartile 4: 9.3 ng/mL; P for trend <0.001). A similar association was observed for serum docosahexaenoic acid/AA (quartile 1: 11.1 ng/mL; quartile 2: 10.6 ng/mL; quartile 3: 10.1 ng/mL; quartile 4: 9.7 ng/mL; P for trend <0.001). An adjustment for potential confounding factors did not change these associations. Conclusions: Higher ratios of serum n−3 to n−6 PUFAs were associated with lower serum resistin levels. Consumption of a large amount of n−3 PUFAs might have desirable effects on resistin-mediated diseases.
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