Background The Xarelto Post-Authorization Safety and Effectiveness Study in Japanese Patients with Atrial Fibrillation (XAPASS) was designed to investigate safety and effectiveness during long-term follow-up of rivaroxaban treatment, using reduced doses compared with other global regions, in Japanese patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation in real-world clinical practice. Methods In this prospective, open-label, single-arm, observational study, 11,308 patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation newly prescribed rivaroxaban (15/10 mg once daily) at 1416 sites across Japan were enrolled and followed for a mean of 2.5 years. Results In total, 10,664 and 10,628 patients were included in the safety and effectiveness analyses, respectively. In the safety population, mean (standard deviation) age was 73.1 (9.8) years and Congestive heart failure, Hypertension, Age 75 years, Diabetes mellitus, previous Stroke/TIA (2 points) (CHADS2) score was 2.2 (1.3). Incidences (95% confidence intervals) of any and major bleeding were 3.77 (3.53–4.01) and 1.16 (1.03–1.29) events per 100 patient-years, respectively. Age 75 years, creatinine clearance <50 mL/min, diabetes mellitus, and vascular disease were independently associated with incidence of major bleeding. The primary composite effectiveness outcome of stroke, non-central nervous system systemic embolism, and myocardial infarction occurred at an incidence (95% confidence interval) of 1.32 (1.18–1.46) events per 100 patient-years. Age 75 years, hypertension, prior ischemic stroke/transient ischemic attack, and concomitant use of antiplatelets were independently associated with incidence of the composite outcome of stroke, non-central nervous system systemic embolism, and myocardial infarction. Conclusion In the XAPASS, a large-scale study involving a broad range of patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation newly prescribed rivaroxaban using Japan-specific dosage in real-world clinical practice, no unexpected safety or effectiveness concerns were detected during up to 5 years of follow-up.
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