Aim: Although eye-tracking technology expands beyond capturing eye data just for the sole purpose of ensuring participants maintain their gaze at the presented fixation cross, gaze technology remains of less importance in clinical research. Recently, impairments in visual information encoding processes indexed by novel gaze metrics have been frequently reported in patients with schizophrenia. This work undertakes a scoping review of research on saccadic dysfunctions and exploratory eye movement deficits among patients with schizophrenia. It gathers promising pieces of evidence of eye movement abnormalities in attention-demanding tasks on the schizophrenia spectrum that have mounted in recent years and their outcomes as potential biological markers. Methods: The protocol was drafted based on PRISMA for scoping review guidelines. Electronic databases were systematically searched to identify articles published between 2010 and 2020 that examined visual processing in patients with schizophrenia and reported eye movement characteristics as potential biomarkers for this mental illness. Results: The use of modern eye-tracking instrumentation has been reported by numerous neuroscientific studies to successfully and non-invasively improve the detection of visual information processing impairments among the screened population at risk of and identified with schizophrenia. Conclusions: Eye-tracking technology has the potential to contribute to the process of early intervention and more apparent separation of the diagnostic entities, being put together by the syndrome-based approach to the diagnosis of schizophrenia. However, context-processing paradigms should be conducted and reported in equally accessible publications to build comprehensive models.
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