Synovial sarcoma is classified as a tumor of uncertain differentiation, and some synovial sarcomas have rhabdoid cells. In previous studies, all malignant rhabdoid tumors and renal medullary carcinomas, some extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcomas, almost all epithelioid sarcomas and half of epithelioid malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors showed a loss of SMARCB1/INI1 protein expression in tumor cells and all of these tumors are also known to have rhabdoid cells. We analyzed the immunohistochemical and mRNA expression of SMARCB1/INI1 in 95 synovial sarcomas (73 monophasic fibrous type, 18 biphasic type and 4 poorly differentiated type) and 30 spindle cell sarcomas (3 adult fibrosarcomas, 7 fibrosarcomas arising in dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, 10 leiomyosarcomas and 10 malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors) resembling monophasic fibrous synovial sarcoma. The results have shown that 66 of the 95 synovial sarcoma cases (69%) had reduced SMARCB1/INI1 protein expression, whereas the remaining 29 cases (31%) and all 30 spindle cell sarcomas showed preserved this protein expression. No case with a complete loss of SMARCB1/INI1 protein expression was recognized. The median values of SMARCB1/INI1 mRNA expression in non-tumor skeletal muscle and synovial sarcoma with reduced protein expression were 12.86 and 134.01, respectively, and a statistically significant difference was detected between these two groups (P0.0000004). However, there was no statistically significant difference of prognosis between the synovial sarcoma group with reduced and that with preserved SMARCB1/INI1 protein expression (P0.46). Therefore, it was suggested that there is a post-transcriptional SMARCB1/INI1 regulatory mechanism in the tumor cells of synovial sarcoma.
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