The present research examined the process by which classroom social goal structures (prosocial and compliance goal structures) are related to the academic motivations of elementary school children. In Study 1, a Classroom Social Goal Structure Scale was developed, and its reliability and validity tested. Participants were elementary school 5th and 6th graders (N =289). The scale was found to be internally consistent, and it showed a moderate to high correlation with other classroom environment scales. Study 2 examined whether classroom social goal structures were related to academic motivations (intrinsic motivation and self-efficacy)mediated by academic-related peer interactions (i.e., peer learning). Participants were elementary school 5th and 6th graders (N = 3,609)from 117 classrooms in 23 schools. The data were analyzed by multilevel structure equation modeling (MLSEM) at both student and classroom levels. At both levels,prosocial goal structure was found to be related to academic motivations,mediated by peer learning. Compliance goal structure was shown to have a small but significant mediational effect,but only at the student level. The discussion dealt with educational implications of the results.
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