Background: Limited research has been reported on the relationship between periodontal status and erythrocyte parameters. In the present study, longitudinal data from health checkups are used to clarify the relationship between periodontal disease progression and changes in parameters of erythrocytes. Methods: In this prospective study, a total of 120 subjects (35 men and 85 women; age range: 30 to 63 years) participated in a comprehensive health screening and dental checkup in 2006 and 2007. Medical examinations, including anthropometric and manometric measurements, bloodchemistry tests, and oral examinations, were performed. Subjects with periodontal disease progression (i.e., the progression group) were defined based on the presence of ≥1 tooth demonstrating a longitudinal loss of periodontal attachment ≥3 mm or tooth loss during the study period. The Wilcoxon signedrank, x2, Fisher exact, and Mann-Whitney U tests and stepwise logistic regression analysis were used for statistical analyses. Results: The progression group comprised 30 subjects. A significant difference between the progression and non-progression groups was observed in changes of erythrocyte counts but not those of the body mass index, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, creatinine, fasting blood glucose, hemoglobin, hematocrit, triglycerides, high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, aspartate and alanine aminotransferase, and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase. Stepwise logistic regression analysis showed that the progression of periodontal disease was associated with a change (year 2007 minus year 2006) of erythrocyte counts (adjusted odds ratio = 0.970; P = 0.009) after adjusting for age at baseline. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, the progression of periodontal disease is associated with a decrease in erythrocyte counts in a rural Japanese population.
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