Summary To investigate the nutritional condition in a hilly village (Kotyang) and a suburban village (Bhadrakali) in Nepal and to clarify the possible cause of the difference in total serum cholesterol level between the two groups of villagers habitually eating low fat diets, we carried out a nutrition survey using the 24-h recall method and blood sampling in 403 subjects (204 men and 199 women) in the hilly village and 466 (244 men and 222 women) in the suburban village. Total serum cholesterol was statistically significantly lower in the hilly villagers than in the suburban villagers for both sexes, but HDL-cholesterol was not. in both villages, 82% of the total energy was taken from carbohydrate, 7–8% from fat and 10% from protein. Energy, protein, fiber, potassium, magnesium, monounsaturated fatty acid, polyunsaturated fatty acid, and vitamin a in the hilly villagers were significantly higher than those in the suburban villagers. Total serum cholesterol was significantly associated with age and body fat percentage, suggesting that total serum cholesterol level was not directly associated with total fat intake in these Nepalese people.
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