This study was designed to identify correlations between students' awareness of Collaborative Problem Solving (CPS) and learning performance and learning behavior in science education. The topic of the course was Genetic Diseases which was implemented in a twelfth-grade class. To assess the effectiveness of this instructional design, and to find out potential factors that affect the using of CPS skills, multiple data sources including learning test scores, questionnaire feedback, and learning logs were analyzed. First, results indicated significant improvements in students' knowledge acquisition and awareness of Participation and Learning and Knowledge Building in CPS during the course. Furthermore, when we investigated the correlations between CPS awareness and learning performance and learning behavior, the findings indicated significant positive correlations between students' learning motivation and their awareness of CPS processes. However, there were negative correlations found between certain learning behavior factors with CPS awareness and learning motivation factors respectively.