Volcano monitoring systems are not always ready to resolve signals at the onset of eruptive activity. This study makes use of stations installed later to calibrate the performance of the stations that had been operated before the eruption. Seven stations recorded continuous volcanic tremor before and during the subplinian eruptions of Shinmoe-dake, Japan, in 2011. We estimated the source locations of the tremor using the amplitude distribution. The stability of the analysis was obtained by careful selection of time windows in which signals from a single source are dominated. The site effects and the regional attenuation factor were evaluated using tremor recorded after the major eruptions by a dense seismic array and a good number of stations. A tremor source changed its depth beneath the crater for 1 week before the major eruption, rising from a depth of a few kilometer to the water layer 3 times, each of which occurred following shallow inflation and minor eruptions. It is interpreted as migration of gas probably with magma, which further transported heat to the water layer and triggered the subplinian eruptions.
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