Objective: It is essential to estimate the brain temperature of patients during deliberate deep hypothermia. Using jugular bulb temperature as a standard for brain temperature, we evaluated the accuracy and precision of 5 standard temperature monitoring sites (ie, pulmonary artery, nasopharynx, forehead deep-tissue, urinary bladder, and fingertip skin-surface tissue) during deep hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass conducted for thoracic aortic reconstruction. Methods: In 20 adult patients with thoracic aortic aneurysms, the 5 temperature monitoring sites were recorded every 1 minute during deep hypothermic (<20°C) cardiopulmonary bypass. The accuracy was evaluated by the difference from jugular bulb temperature, and the precision was evaluated by its standard deviation, as well as by the correlation with jugular bulb temperature. Results: Pulmonary artery temperature and jugular bulb temperature began to change immediately after the start of cooling or rewarming, closely matching each other, and the other temperatures lagged behind these two temperatures. During either situation, the accuracy of pulmonary artery temperature measurement (0.3°C-0.5°C) was much superior to the other measurements, and its precision (standard deviation of the difference from jugular bulb temperature = 1.5°C-1.8°C; correlation coefficient = 0.94-0.95) was also best among the measurements, with its rank order being pulmonary artery ≥ nasopharynx > forehead > bladder > fingertip. However, the accuracy and precision of pulmonary artery temperature measurement was significantly impaired during and for several minutes after infusion of cold cardioplegic solution. Conclusions: Pulmonary artery temperature measurement is recommended to estimate brain temperature during deep hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass, even if it is conducted with the sternum opened; however, caution needs to be exercised in interpreting its measurements during periods of the cardioplegic solution infusion.
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