Reproductive behavior of the foam-nesting treefrog, Rhacophorus arboreus, is described. Oviposition was made either by an amplectant pair (a female and an amplectant male) alone or by an amplectant pair and other males (joiners). The snout-vent length of males and females was negatively correlated with the date of the first appearance in the pond. The period of staying in the pond in males was longer than that in females. Physical body contacts of other males and encounter calls by amplectant males were frequently observed before oviposition with joiners. Snout-vent length of the female and an amplectant male were positively correlated. Encounter calls by amplectant males were likely to precede movements of females. There was no difference of snout-vent length between amplectant males and joiners. Females moved the hindlimbs more frequently than males during oviposition. Amplectant males made encounter calls more frequently in oviposition with joiners than oviposition without joiners. The patterns of transitions between acts of females and amplectant males were similar between oviposition with and without joiners. Females more frequently responded to amplectant males than joiners. Both the duration of a bout of the movements of hindlimbs of females and the interval between the bouts were longer in oviposition without joiners than that with joiners. The number of the movements per bout in oviposition without joiners was smaller than that with joiners. Encounter calls by amplectant males during oviposition tended to precede the hindlimb movements of females.
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