Allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is one of the curative treatment options for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). However, the outcomes in patients transplanted without complete remission (non-CR) have not yet been fully reported, and detailed analyses are required to identify subgroups in which optimal prognosis is expected and to optimize pre-transplant therapeutic strategies. Hence, we performed a multicentred retrospective cohort study including a total of 663 adult ALL patients transplanted at non-CR status; the median bone marrow (BM) blast counts at HSCT was 13·2%, and 203 patients (30·6%) were treated at primary induction failure status. The overall survival (OS) was 31·1% at two years, and the multivariate analyses identified five prognostic risk factors, including older age (≥50 years), increased BM blasts (≥10%), poor performance status, high haematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT)-comorbidity index, and relapsed disease status, among which BM blast was the most significantly related. A predictive scoring system composed of these risk factors clearly stratified OS (15·6–59·5% at two years). In conclusion, this is the first large-scale study to analyze the correlation of patient characteristics with post-transplant prognosis in ALL transplanted at non-CR status. The importance of blast control before HSCT should be focused on for better patient prognosis.
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