Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) is a rare congenital birth disorder (1 in 50,000 live births) characterized by severe craniofacial defects. Recently, the authors' group unfolded the pathogenesis of polr1c Type 3 TCS by using the zebrafish model. Facial development depends on the neural crest cells, in which polr1c plays a role in regulating their expression. In this study, the authors aimed to identify the functional time window of polr1c in TCS by the use of photo-morpholino to restore the polr1c expression at different time points. Results suggested that the restoration of polr1c at 8 hours after fertilization could rescue the TCS facial malformation phenotype by correcting the neural crest cell expression, reducing the cell death, and normalizing the p53 mRNA expression level in the rescued morphants. However, such recovery could not be reproduced if the polr1c is restored after 30 hours after fertilization.
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