Purpose: To identify risk factors for clinical failure of uterine artery embolization (UAE) for postpartum hemorrhage (PPH), with particular attention to the uterine artery diameter. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study included 47 patients who underwent UAE for PPH between January 1, 2010, and January 31, 2021. Technical success was defined as the completion of embolization of the arteries thought to be the cause of the bleeding. Clinical success was defined as no recurrent bleeding or need for additional therapeutic interventions. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to examine the risk factors associated with clinical failure of UAE. Results: Of the 47 patients, 6 had recurrent bleeding. Of the 6 patients, 4 underwent hysterectomy, and 2 underwent repeat embolization. The clinical success rate was 87.2% (41/47), with no major adverse events such as uterine infarction or death. In univariate analysis, there were slight differences in multiparity (P =.115) and placental abruption (P =.128) and a significant difference in the findings of a narrow uterine artery on digital subtraction angiography (DSA) (P =.005). In multivariate analysis, only a narrow uterine artery on DSA was a significant factor (odds ratio, 18.5; 95% confidence interval, 2.5–134.8; P =.004). Conclusions: A narrow uterine artery on DSA was a risk factor for clinically unsuccessful UAE for PPH. It may be prudent to conclude the procedure only after it is ensured that vasospasm has been relieved.
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