Recent improvements in perinatal management have improved the prognosis in patients with severe congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). However, in surviving patients with severe CDH, hearing loss has sometimes been reported to occur during the follow-up period. Although some of the risk factors for developing sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) have been reported in CDH, no definitive risk factors have yet been reported. We, therefore, investigated the risk factors regarding postnatal management in patients with severe CDH. In 16 surviving patients with severe CDH, which had all been detected antenatally, and whose lung-to-thoracic ratio was less than 0.2, four patients demonstrated late onset SNHL, which occurred between 1.5 and 5 years of age. The risk factors for SNHL regarding the postnatal treatment for CDH were analyzed between the four patients with SNHL and the remaining 12 patients without SNHL, regarding such factors as the use of ototoxic drugs, neuromuscular blocking agents, high-frequency oscillation (HFO), and inhaled nitric oxide, the duration of hypocapnia, hypoxia, severe acidosis, severe alkalosis, and mechanical ventilation. In addition, the types of neuromuscular blocking agents were also analyzed, including the administration of pancuronium bromide (PB) and vecuronium bromide (VB). The patients with SNHL were found to have a significantly higher risk than the patients without SNHL regarding the duration of loop diuretics usage and the duration of usage of both mechanical ventilation and HFO. Furthermore, all four patients with SNHL used PB. In contrast, none of the five patients using VB developed SNHL The duration and cumulative dose of PB used in the patients with severe CDH showed a significant correlation to the occurrence of SNHL. Although this study was retrospective, based on our data, the prolonged use of PB, in addition to the duration of treatment by loop diuretics, mechanical ventilation, and HFO usage, might, thus, be suggested to be a possible risk factor for late onset SNHL in patients with severe CDH.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health