Objectives The development of an effective screening method for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is of paramount importance. This study assessed the diagnostic utility in pancreatic diseases of duodenal markers during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (GIE) or endoscopic ultrasonography. Methods This study prospectively enrolled 299 consecutive participants, including 94 patients with PDACs, 144 patients with other pancreatic diseases, and 61 normal individuals as control subjects. All subjects underwent upper GIE or endoscopic ultrasonography either at Kyushu University Hospital (Fukuoka, Japan) or the Mayo Clinic (Jacksonville, Fla) from October 2011 to July 2014. Duodenal fluid (DF) was collected without secretin stimulation and of carcinoembryonic antigen and S100 calcium-binding protein P (S100P) concentrations were measured. Results Concentrations of S100P in DF were significantly higher in patients with PDAC and chronic pancreatitis than in control subjects (P < 0.01). A logistic regression model that included age found that the sensitivity and specificity of S100P concentration in diagnosing stages 0/IA/IB/IIA PDAC were 85% and 77%, respectively, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.82. Carcinoembryonic antigen concentrations in DF of patients with pancreatic disease did not differ significantly from control subjects. Conclusions Analysis of S100P concentration in DF, in combination with routine screening upper GIE, may facilitate the detection of PDAC.
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