Sinusitis is a serious infectious complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Schizophyllum commune (S commune) is a common basidiomycete fungus that is rarely involved in human disease. We report herein a case of S commune sinusitis after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. A 66-year-old man with myelodysplastic syndrome underwent allogeneic bone marrow transplantation and developed maxillary and ethmoid sinusitis. The sinusitis did not improve with liposomal amphotericin B after neutrophil engraftment, so we considered that surgical intervention was needed for the recovery of sinusitis. Endoscopic sinus surgery was performed. In the debridement tissue of paranasal mucosa, filamentous fungal elements were observed. Moreover, genetic analysis of the tissue revealed the presence of S commune. Schizophyllum commune should be recognized as a fungal pathogen that causes sinusitis after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. This case suggests the effectiveness of prompt surgical intervention with liposomal amphotericin B treatment for S commune sinusitis and the usefulness of genetic diagnosis for cases under antifungal treatment. (160 words).
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