Sea-ice diatom taxa (Fragilariopsis cylindrus and Fragilariopsis oceanica) and their relative abundance in the Okhotsk Sea were used to reconstruct the history of sea-ice distribution and atmospheric pressure patterns since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). The temporal state of sea-ice distribution and atmospheric pressure patterns since the LGM can be divided into three modes: northern Aleutian Low mode, southern Aleutian Low mode, and strong Siberian High mode. The Southern Aleutian Low mode was dominant before 15. ka and after 6.5. ka, respectively, showing expanded sea-ice distribution into the central and southern Okhotsk Sea. During the deglaciation period (15. ka to 10. ka), sea-ice retreated from the southern Okhotsk Sea because of the pronounced westerly winds under the strong Siberian High mode. However, sea-ice distribution expanded in the northern Okhotsk Sea, which favors the development of extensive polynyas on the northern continental shelf. Occurrences of northern Aleutian Low mode were frequent between 10 and 6.5. ka, while sea-ice distribution expanded into the eastern Okhotsk Sea. Formation of the Okhotsk Sea Intermediate Water, inferred from radiolarian species Cycladophora davisiana, intensified under both northern Aleutian Low mode and strong Siberian High mode.
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