Over the past decades, deep learning (DL) systems have achieved tremendous success and gained great popularity in various applications, such as intelligent machines, image processing, speech processing, and medical diagnostics. Deep neural networks are the key driving force behind its recent success, but still seem to be a magic black box lacking interpretability and understanding. This brings up many open safety and security issues with enormous and urgent demands on rigorous methodologies and engineering practice for quality enhancement. A plethora of studies have shown that state-of-the-art DL systems suffer from defects and vulnerabilities that can lead to severe loss and tragedies, especially when applied to real-world safety-critical applications. In this paper, we perform a large-scale study and construct a paper repository of 223 relevant works to the quality assurance, security, and interpretation of deep learning. Based on this, we, from a software quality assurance perspective, pinpoint challenges and future opportunities to facilitate drawing the attention of the software engineering community towards addressing the pressing industrial demand of secure intelligent systems.