This paper studies the human arm's sensory-motor control mechanism in reaching movements. First, we formulate both the kinematics and dynamics of a two-link planar arm model with six redundant muscles. The nonlinear muscle dynamics is modeled based on several biological understandings. We then show the stability of the overall system and perform some numerical simulations. By considering the internal forces induced by the redundant muscles, we show that the damping factors in each joint can be regulated, and as the result, it can realize humanlike quasistraight line reaching movements. In addition, we also propose the gravity compensation method at the muscle input level and present the result of numerical simulation to verify the usefulness of this method.
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