Kinins locally synthesized in the cardiovascular tissue are believed to contribute to the regulation of cardiovascular homeostasis by stimulating the endothelial cells to release nitric oxide, prostacyclin, or a hyperpolarizing factor via autocrine-paracrine mechanisms. This study was designed to investigate the action of sevoflurane on bradykinin-induced Ca2+ mobilization in endothelial cells in situ. Utilizing fura-2-loaded rat pulmonary arterial valve leaflets, the effects of sevoflurane were examined on bradykinin-induced increases in intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in endothelial cells in situ. In the presence of extracellular Ca2+ (1.5 mM), bradykinin (3-30 μM) produced an initial phasic and a subsequent tonic increase in [Ca2+]i in a concentration-dependent manner. However, it produced only the phasic increase in [Ca2+]i in the absence of extracellular Ca2+. Sevoflurane (5%, 0.67 mM) inhibited both the phasic and tonic responses to bradykinin. In these experiments, sevoflurane (3-5%) generated sustained increases (approximately 20-40% of the bradykinin-induced maximal increase in [Ca2+]i) in the resting [Ca2+]i level. Sevoflurane still increased [Ca2+]i after depletion of the intracellular Ca2+ stores with ionomycin (0.1 μM). However, the sevoflurane-induced increase in [Ca2+]i was eliminated by removal of the extracellular Ca2+ and attenuated by NiCl2 (1-3 mM). In conclusion, in the pulmonary arterial valvular endothelial cells, sevoflurane inhibits both bradykinin-induced Ca2+ release from the intracellular stores and bradykinin-induced plasmalemmal Ca2+ influx. In addition, sevoflurane appears to stimulate the plasmalemmal Ca+2 influx and thereby increase the endothelial [Ca2+]i level. Sevoflurane might influence the pulmonary vascular tone through its direct action on the pulmonary arterial valvular endothelial cells.
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