The Kirishima Volcano Group is a volcanic field ideal for studying the mechanism of steam-driven eruptions because many eruptions of this type occurred in the historical era and geophysical observation networks have been installed in this volcano. We made regular geothermal observations to understand the hydrothermal activity in Ebinokogen Ioyama Volcano. Geothermal activity resumed around the Ioyama from December 2015. A steam blowout occurred in April 2017, and a hydrothermal eruption occurred in April 2018. Geothermal activity had gradually increased before these events, suggesting intrusion of the magmatic component fluids in the hydrothermal system under the volcano. The April 2018 eruption was a magmatic hydrothermal eruption caused by the injection of magmatic fluids into a very-shallow hydrothermal system as a bottom–up fluid pressurization, although juvenile materials were not identifiable. Additionally, the upwelling of mixed magma–meteoric fluids to the surface as a kick was observed just before the eruption to cause the top–down flashing of April 2018. A series of events was generated in the shallower hydrothermal regime consisting of multiple systems divided by conductive caprock layers.
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