Signal enhancing systems have been introduced to enable detection of cell surface antigens by flow cytometry. Cell surface antigens are important targets that describe the function and lineage of cells. Although flow cytometry is an effective tool for analysing cell surface antigens, this technique has poor sensitivity, which prohibits the detection of many important antigens on cell membranes. Thus, signal amplification is essential for developing practical tools for evaluating cell surface antigens by flow cytometry. Using a bright fluorophore or fluorescent polymer incorporated into antibodies is a straightforward strategy to improve flow cytometry sensitivity but may affect the functional characteristics of the labelled antibody. In contrast, enzymatic signal amplification is a more practical and efficient strategy to improve sensitivity that should not affect antibody activity. Although enzymatic signal amplification still has a number of drawbacks, this approach is a promising strategy to analyse cell surface antigens.
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