We determined the nucleotide sequence of the entire 1,010,525-bp insert contained in CEPH YAC clone 867e8. This human genomic segment was derived from chromosome 9q31.3 and corresponds to a G-band region. We compared this segment, in terms of structure, with a previously characterized 1,201,033-bp sequence in CEPH YAC936c1 that had come from a portion of human chromosome 3p21.3 corresponding to an R-band region. The two segments were significantly different with respect to the frequency of transcriptional units, the types and numbers of repetitive elements present, their GC content, and the number of CpG islands. Alu elements, GC content, and CpG islands all showed positive correlations with the abundance of exons, but the distribution of LINE1s did not. These observations might reflect an influence of the first three of these features on the functions or expression of genes in the respective regions. In addition to a novel gene (F36) lying at the centromeric end of the 9q segment, we found a cluster of placenta-specific genes within a small section (about 400 kb) on the telomeric side of YAC867e8. This cluster consisted of four apparently unrelated ESTs and two genes, pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) and a novel gene (tentatively named EST-YD1). Our characterization of the two chromosomal regions provided evidence that genes are not evenly distributed throughout the human genome, and that gene richness is correlated with the GC content and with the frequency of either Alu elements or CpG islands.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Biology