In Japan, approximately 64% of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash (MSWI BA) is landfilled. Because landfills in Japan are operated without capping, the landfill body is directly exposed to climatic events. Increased frequency of heavy rain is predicted to affect the chemical stabilization of bottom ash (BA) landfill, as rainwater seeps into and interacts with landfill components. This study examined the effect of normal rainfall (15 mm/h) and heavy rainfall (25, 50, and 100 mm/h) events on the leaching behavior of ions (Cl−, Na+, K+, and Ca2+) and total organic carbon (TOC) in BA (<10 mm particle size) using a percolation column test. The results showed the decreased leaching of leachate components after heavy rainfall and increased leaching after normal rainfall. In addition, the pH fluctuated around 11–12 after heavy rainfall but decreased to 7–9 after normal rainfall. The carbonation of the leachate and BA layers appears to be the main factor in lowering the pH value. Changes in the TOC and ion concentrations can be explained by dissolution, dilution, and the contact time of water molecules and BA particles. The data showed that the cumulative TOC and ion release rates were not affected by heavy rain intensities. The release rate of leachate components during normal rainfall was higher than that in heavy rainfall in all the scenarios. Significant correlations were found between the leachate components (TOC, Cl−, Na+, K+, and Ca2+ concentrations) and rainfall variation.
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