Upon antigenic stimulation, establishment of adaptive immune responses that determines vaccine efficacy is dependent on efficient T cell priming. Here, single CX3CL1-Ig DNA administration, a unique ligand of CX3CR1, together with viral or tumor antigens induced a strong in vivo antigen-specific T cell proliferation and effector function that was enough efficient to protect against a tumor challenge. We also showed that early expression of CX3CL1-Ig and antigens in muscle and lymphoid organs induces an increased in vivo migration of myeloid CD14+CD11c+ DC but not lymphoid CD8α+CD11c+ DC at these sites. Thus, by effectively directing DC toward lymphoid organs to encounter T cells, CX3CL1-Ig become a new candidate that augments T cell priming and increases efficiency of vaccination.
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