Background: A study investigating associations between various socioeconomic factors and standardized mortality ratios (SMR) of each type of cancer among municipalities in Japan has not been conducted using the data of the past decade. Herein, we investigated the predictors of a recent trend of municipal SMRs of cancer using the Vital Statistics in Japan and revealed the change in the SMRs depending on the identified predictors. Methods: Data on cancer mortality for each municipality in 2010 and 2019 were used. We calculated empirical Bayes SMR (EBSMR) for each municipality by type of cancer and sex and then fitted a multiple linear regression model using possible predictors in 2010 as explanatory variables and the EBSMR in 2019 as the outcome variable. We also classified municipalities into quintiles based on the values of an identified predictor in 2010, and SMRs of each type of cancer in 2010 and 2019 were calculated for each quintile. Results: The total population was positively associated with EMSMRs of multiple cancer types, whereas educational level was negatively associated with EMSMRs of multiple cancer types. In addition, SMRs of municipalities with the lowest educational level deteriorated from 2010 to 2019 for many cancer types among men and women, and the difference between municipalities with the highest and lowest educational level for the SMR of cancer in all sites widened in 2019 for men. On the other hand, the SMR of municipalities with the highest educational level or the largest total population tended to be higher than municipalities with lower counterparts in both 2010 and 2019 for women. Conclusion: There was a difference in the trend of the SMRs of multiple types of cancer depending on municipal educational level, whereas municipalities with larger population or educational level continued to have higher SMRs of cancer in all sites for women.
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