Sacrococcygeal teratoma (SCT) is the most common congenital tumor, with affected fetuses having a high risk of perinatal complications and death. We report a case of a fetus with an SCT that developed acute anemia due to spontaneous rupture of the tumor in utero. The fetus was referred at 25 weeks' gestation for evaluation of a large solid and cystic mass in the sacral region. There were no signs of hydrops or placentomegaly. At 33 weeks' gestation, loss of variability in the fetal heart rate pattern was recorded. Doppler ultrasonography showed increased middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity, suggesting fetal anemia. Markedly bloody amniotic fluid, with 82% hemoglobin F, was observed on amniocentesis, suggesting rupture of the SCT with active fetal bleeding. An emergency Cesarean section was performed. At delivery, the tumor was bleeding actively and the neonatal hemoglobin concentration was 3.1 g/dL. There were no findings of hemorrhage or necrosis within the tumor. The neonate received a blood transfusion, and surgical resection of the tumor was carried out on the first day after delivery. Postoperatively, the baby did well. We suggest that fetal SCTs run the risk of inducing acute fetal anemia due to intrauterine hemorrhage of the tumor, a finding which could lead to an earlier and more appropriate management of this condition.
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